The Vikings

North of Europe, the regions of origin of the Vikings recover the current territory of the kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Around year 800, the Scandinavians arrive to Europe: fleets of war arrive on the coasts of England, France and Spain. In the East of Europe, the Scandinavian warriors and merchants sail dowstream the Russian rivers towards the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea.
Around 650, Scandinavians are installed on the archipelago of Faroe and, according to the saga of Faroese, the first man to go ashore fled the tyranny of king de Norvège Harald Irst.

Greenland is colonized by Eric the Red in 984 or 985.
Iceland is discovered by the Scandinavians in years 860; an exploring Swedish Viking, would have been the first to make the turn of Iceland and to establish that this one was an island. Ingólfr Arnarson expelled of Norway arrives in 874 and built its farm on the site which will become Reykjavik.
Expeditions towards Vinnland, Markland and Helluland are then organized: vestiges were found at the northern tip of Newfoundland.
Estonia is on the way of the Viking big business bound for Russia and of Byzance. From 800, the Scandinavians, primarily Swedish, called in Eastern Europe Varangians or Rus, will establish trade route towards Russia and Byzance.
Between 850 and 990, the Vikings are established on the Isle of Man. Other Scandinavians make incursions on the English coasts where the first attack takes place in 793.
In Western Gaul, the first Vikings to sail upstram come around 840: they sail up the Seine river until besieging Paris in 845 and they return by three times in 856, 861 and 885. They implant at the mouth of the Seine in 911.
 In 1066, Guillaume, duke of Normandy and descendant of Viking chief Rollon seized the crown of England after his victory at the battle of Hastings
The Viking boat, with sails and oars is able to carry out long crossings in open sea and to beach thanks to its shallow draft: long and low for the oars but broad enough for the sail.
. Four watercrafts of the 11th century were discovered in Skuldelev, Denmark: two cargo vessel and two warships.
The prow and the poop are raised; the hull is clinker built. Propelled by the wind thanks to a rectangular wool sail, these ships are able to sail up wind very well. But the ships are also equipped with oars.
The Viking ship is also almost symmetrical between prow and poop, which enables her to move indifferently ahead and behind the same manner (double ended)
  ODIN'S RAVEN est une réplique au 2/3 du navire exposé au musée d'Oslo, lancée le 28 avril 1979, en utilisant la technique de construction des vikings. Parti de Trondheim le 27 mai 1979 et atteint la plage de Peel, ile de Man, le 5 juillet 1979.
ODIN' S RAVEN is a two-thirds replica of the Gokstadt ship in the Oslo Museum, launched on 28 April 1979, by using the building technique of the Vikings. Leaving Trondheim on 27 May 1979, she reached the beach of Peel, Isle of Man, on 5 July 1979.



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