The different ships types

The discoveries ships

The working ships
Full-rigged ship
Three-masted schooner
Three-masted barque
Four-masted barque

The rigging
fore-and-aft sails
Bermuda rigg

Le Gros-Ventre and la Fortune close to Kerguelen

The flute is the main dutch merchand ship at the 17th century, rigged with two masts each one with two square sails, a mizzen mast with a triangular sail and a bowsprit.

The caraque (or nao or nef) comes from the cogue appeared around 1200 in Scandinavia: the single mast is replaced by a 3 masts rigging.

At the 17th century the galion becomes progressively a vessel. With her little sister, the frigate, she will equip the naval forces during more than two centuries. The forecastle and aftcastle finish to diseappear at the 18th century on hulls nearly horizontal and lengthened.

The gabare is a servitude ship, armed at the 14th century and later rigged with three masts.

The ketch is a cutter rigging two jibs where the mizzen mast is implemanted forward the helmsmann's place. This ship, very similar to the dundee, riggs a large sail with a gaff surmounted of a gaff topsail and an identical mizzen sail.

The dundee is a fishing ship, of 50 to 60 tons and with 5 or 6 crew ; two large setting booms are rigged on each side of the main mast.

The corvette is a small war ship with three masts, equipped of about ten guns at the 18th century.

The aviso (advice vessel) is a small tonnage ship in charge of carrying announcements, orders.

The full-rigged ship (in french "trois-mâts carré") is rigged with square sails on all three masts

The three-masted barque (in french "trois-mâts barque") has two square rigging, on the foremast and on the main mast, when the mizzen mast is rigged with a spanker on a gaff and a gaff topsail.

The three-masted schooner (in french "trois-mâts goélette") has a square rigging on the foremast when the main mast tand the mizzen mast are rigged with a spanker on a gaff and a gaff topsail.

The four-masted barque differs of the three-masted barque by a second main mast square rigged.

AMERICA is with BLUENOSE a typical example of a schooner where the mainsail is backward when the foremast is rigged with a gaff sail, trapezoidal ; gaff topsails are rigged above the foresail and the mainsail.
ETOILE and BELLE-POULE are topsail schooners: at the difference of the schooner, the gaff topsail on the foremast is replaced by one or two topsails, a squared sail rigged above the lower sails.
Lugsails (the sail where the halyards are made fast at the third of the yard), gaffsails (trapezoidal sails), spritsails (quadrangular sail fitted diagonally on a yard) are fore-and-aft sails.
livarde.jpg (105466 octets) ESpritsail rigged small boat, equipped with a gaff topsail above the mainsail

The Bermuda rigg is the typical rigg of sloops: a large triangular sail ; it is also the rigg of America's cup J class
Stamps in booklet for domestic letters of less than 20 grams

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