|At the time of sailing ships festivals, the attention is focused on the stars that are the tall sailing school-ships, Russian or Latin-American. There exists However other sailing ships, less known of European general public, which merit an attentive glance: they are the replicas of discoveries ships, of emigrants ships or combat ships.|
|The building site of Sandefjord gives rise to a hull in oak
of 24 x 5 m, with a 15 meters high mast carrying a sail of 9 x 12.5
meters, and 32 oars to reach a speed of 8-11 knots. A jib less authentic
is rigged in addition and 32 shields are placed on the sides of the ship.
|Under the command of the captain Magnus Anderson, VIKING leaves Marstein (close to Bergen, Norway) on 30 April 1893 to cross the Atlantic and to arrive at Newfoundland 4 weeks later. Exhibit in Chicago until 1993, in Lincoln Park, she is from now on property of American Scandinavian Society and Chicago Park District.|
|In 1978, a new replica at a scale of two-third the ship of
Gokstad, os born to mark the millenium of the Parliament of Man (Manx
Tynwald). The ship named ODIN' S RAVEN is built on the fjord of
Oslo and is launched on April 28, 1979.
Leaving Trondheim on May 27, 1979, the ship completes its voyage by a triumphing reception in Peel, on July 4, 1979.
|ODIN'S RAVEN, long of 50' (15,24 m), is built of oak by respecting the original technique of the Vikings: construction of the boat starting from the skittle, installation of bordered external then consolidation of the structure with slats related to the hull. It carries 50 sq m of sail and is under-sailed by small time. With a crew of 16 men, a small auxiliary engine was added in case of emergency.|
|MAYFLOWER II, replica of the famous transport of pilgrims towards
the New World is the fruit in 1955-1956 in Devon, England, of
collaboration between English Warwick Charlton and the American museum,
Plimoth Plantation, combining the plans of the museum and construction by
the traditional methods of the British yards. On 20 April 1957, Mayflower
II crosses the Atlantic Ocean skipped by Alan Villiers, with 33 men on
board. In 53 days (instead of 66) the 5420 miles are run at an average
speed of 4.5 knots.
|The arrival of Mayflower was followed by other European immigrants;
among them Swedish who in 1638 on board KALMAR NICKEL, come to
establish the first European permanent establishment in the Delaware
valley, the New Sweden , today Wilmington, Delaware. The ship will make 4
crossings, more than any other ship of this time before being in service
in the Swedish navy in the war against Denmark, then is transformed into
trading vessel before disappearing at the end from the 17è century, off
Kalmar or off England, according to the sources.
|Launched at Vila do Conde, Portugal, on 28 April 1990, BOA ESPERANÇA
is a replica (supposed to be exact, for lack of true detailed drawings) of
Latin caravel with two masts, built between 1987 and 1990 in Portugal. It
is a beautiful example of the caravels built at the time of the Portuguese
discoveries of African coasts.
The caravel is exposed into the museum of discoveries in Mossel Bay in South Africa Various types of wood were used: wild pine for boarding, side deck and masts, oak and ash for the members, teak for the deck and the poop, eucalyptus for the yards.
Height of the mainmast: 18 m.
|Overall length: 23,8 m.
Length of the watermark: 21,7 m
Draught: 3,3 m.
Auxiliary propulsion by Diesel engine 190 HP.
Average speed: 4/5 knots; maximum speed: 10 knots.
|Another famous discoverer has her replica: ENDEAVOUR, vessel of the first voyage around the world of James Cook, one of the greatest navigators of all times. It skirted the Eastern coast of Australia in 1770, whereas the Western coast had been touched by Dutch in 1606.(Look at Australia's discovery)|
Decided by the Council of National Australian Maritime Museum in 1987, financed by the company of Alan Bond, first non-American to win America' s Cup (The AMERICA's CUP), its construction is committed at the Fremantle shipyard, Western Australia , the following year in order to mark the 200th birthday of the British settlement. It will take five years to finish Endeavour, on the bases of original drawing of the Cook's ship from the Maritime National Museum of Greenwich.
Height of the foremast: 78' 9 "(24 m)
Characteristics of Endeavour :
Displacement: 550 tons
|The main differences between the
original and the replica are in the wood and metals of construction. The
British vessels of the 18è were built in elm, oak and fir tree, now
difficult and expensive to buy. The wood of a species of eucalyptus of
Western Australia, Jarrah, is selected with the pine of Oregon
(Douglas-Fir) especially imported the USA for the masts and the espars.
The 27 veils of Endeavour are made in Duradon, a synthetic material which
resembles the fabric of flax original but more resistant.
|Since its launching on December 9, 1993 Endeavour crossed the strait of Tasmania, sailed around Australia and achieved several turns of the world.|
|Another sailing ship appears in bay
of Sydney: the replica of the famous BOUNTY, whose construction for the
realization of two films was initiated in 1978 by the American film
producer David Lean and the financier Dino de Laurentis. The vessel is
built by Whangarei Engineering Company Ltd, in Wangarei, New Zealand.
On 16 December 1978, HMAV BOUNTY is launched; its dimensions are 40,50 x 8,60 x 5,49 m, draught is 3,79 m. displacement 387 tons. The height of the principal mast is 33,94 m. The 19 sails are in flax of Scotland for a surface of 933 sq m. She can receive 20 people on board. The hull is out of steel, the masts and the spars in pine of British Columbia, the bridge in Tanekaha, a New Zealand conifer. Its opening to the public shows its tourist attraction and on October 2, 1981, the vessel undertakes its inaugural voyage for Auckland. Property of Bounty Voyages from Sydney, Australia, it is used for some 45 days cruising from Tahiti to Pitcairn then in cruises in the bay of Sydney.
It is also for the cinematographic needs which is built in 1970 the replica of a British warship of the 18è century, HMS ROSE, main character of a splendid film made in 2001: "Master and Commander, on the other side of the world", drawn from the series of remarkable books of Patrick O'Brian. During the Napoleonic wars the 28-guns of captain Jack Aubrey , H.M.S. SURPRISED, tracking an enemy higher through two oceans - from the coasts of Brazil to Galapagos while passing by Cape Horn.
|In search for his "casting", the director Peter Weir visited the restored deck of Nelson's H.M.S. VICTORY, travelled on board ENDEAVOUR, and found ROSE, in Rhode Island. The three masted frigate is bought by Twentieth Century Fox and joined the West coast since Rhode Island while passing by Panama Canal, in spite of a hurricane and a broken mast. The ship is transformed in San Diego into SURPRISED HMS.||
Built in Lunenburg, Canada, in 1970, the frigate out of wooden measures500
tons and its dimensions are 170' X 32' X 13' (draught) for a surface of veil
of 1200 m². Original plans of 1757 are held by the Maritime National Museum
An organization of naval history exploits it since 2004 in San Diego Maritime Museum Original HMS ROSE was built in Hull (the U.K.) in 1757:
|She was a ship of 6th rank, the smallest vessel which could be ordered by a captain. She seems not to be engaged in major engagements except to relay messages.|
|Launched on July 10, 1992 in
Jacobstad, Finland, JACOBSTAD WAPEN is a replica of a vessel of
1758 according to the old drawings of 1755, carried out by the famous
naval architect Swedish Fredrik Henrik af Chapman (1720- 1808).
She measures 40 (l.o.a.) x 7,6 x 2,8m. The total surface of sail is of 540 sq m. Rig is completely made out of natural materials (hemp and tar) and carries 8 sails. The mast consists of a solid pine Douglas of Denmark. 50 to 70 passengers can embark on board.
The original vessel was one of the first ships of Finland to arrive to Amsterdam, after the abolition of a Hanse agreement of 1765 which prohibited the ships of Finland to go further than Stockholm.
JACOBSTAD WAPEN sails from May to September, mainly in the Gulf of Bothnia and in Baltic sea .
|Let us remain in Scandinavia: the 12 September 1745, against the entry of the wearing of Gothenburg (Sweden), the ship of the Swedish Company of the Eastern Indies, GÖTHEBORG runs up against a rock and runs; the three-masted ship was back of its third voyage with 5 tons of silverware.|
|Its characteristics: 40.55 meters length, width 10.3 meters, approximate capacity 833 tons. Between 84 and 92 archaeological excavations are undertaken on 1.008 sq m and show tea, spices, silk. In 1993, the project of a replica is launched and in June 95 the skittle is posed; work continues the following years; June 6, 2003 takes place launching in presence of King Carl XVI Gustaf.||The Swedish Ship Götheborg" - a reconstruction of a ship from the mid-18th century is now one of the largest fullrigged wooden sailing ships in the world, with 1964 sq m of surface of sail. Above the waterline, she is a historical ship of the 18th century, the modern machinery and the majority of the advanced technical equipment concealed deep down in the hull.|
|To continue: Sail replicas (2)||
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