Albert I, Prince of Monaco

Albert I, born on 13 November 1848 in Paris, is sovereign prince of Monaco from 10 September 1889 until he died on 26 June 1922. He was the son of Prince Charles III of Monaco and Antoinette-Ghislaine de Monaco, born Countess de Mérode..
After training as an officer of the French Imperial Navy, Lorient, he entered the Spanish Royal Navy, where he served for two years in Cadiz and the Caribbean with the rank of sign and lieutenant of ship. Two years later, he took part in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 as lieutenant of a ship in the French Navy. He is decorated with the Legion of Honour..
After a first marriage to Lady Mary Victoria Douglas-Hamilton, cousin of
Emperor Napoleon III, he married the 30th. October 1889 Alice Heine,
Duchess Dowager of Richelieu..
. Prince Albert has displayed at the beginning of the case of Dreyfusard sympathies and supports the Captain Dreyfus, whom he invites to Monaco 
Prince Albert tries to dissuade Kaiser William II Germany to start the First World War. On 28 June 1914, he meets William II on his boat, the Meteor, in Kiel where regattas since 1882..
Drafting and promulgation of the first Constitution of Monaco on 5 January 1911. In 1911, he created the Rally Automobile. Monte Carlo.
Prince Albert Ist maintains friendship with some musicians, including Saint-Sains and Massenet received at the palace. In 1910, Massenet created La Nef triomphale, a room for the inauguration of the OceanographiccMuseum. Saint-Saens, created Opening of the celebration for the inauguration of the Oceanographic Museum of Monaco..  
The Institute of Human Paleontology (IPH), established in 1910 by Prince Albert I of Monaco and Abbé Breuil, is a foundation of research on the study of human paleontology and Prehistory
On 25 April 1921, the Prince pronounced at the Smithsonian Museum, Washington, the Ocean Speech, Predicting the over-exploitation of resources through overfishing.
The Grand Prix of Oceanography, intended to perpetuate the memory of Prince Alber I, one of the founders of this science, was instituted by Prince Rainier III of Monaco, offering researchers official testimony of esteem for the work done, the dangers involved, the findings made on and within the underwater depths where the share of the unknown is still huge.
In 1977, the Commander Cousteau received this award.
In 1873, the Prince bought a schooner in England, dimensions 103.5 x 20.6 x 11.5 feet (31.4 x 6.1 x 3.35 m) and changes its Pleiad's name in HIRONDELLE (Swallow). For ten years, he undertook at his on cruises in the western Mediterranean and the North Atlantic.
As early as 1885, he organized many scientific campaigns. oceanographic and cartographic, during which it is accompanied by many specialists in ships built and fully dedicated to this research, equipped with laboratories.
Hirondelle I
In 1890-1891, the Green shipyard in Blackwall near London is building a three-mast schooner equipped with an auxiliary machine, 53 metres long,
with a displacement of 650 tonnes, which the prince calls into tribute to his second wife, PRINCESSE ALICE
It should be noted that the TAAF issue names the three-mast PRINCESSE ALICE II, whereas she is the I (see Oceanographic Museum of Monaco on Facebook)
Jean-Baptiste Charcot chartered Cape Monaco in Palmer archipelago and named by him for Albert I, Prince of Monaco, a patron of the expedition.
Then the second PRINCESSE ALICE was launched in 1897. Laird shipyard in Birkenhead near Liverpool, to enable it to sailing the following year to the polar regions. 73 metres long, this two-masted has a displacement of 1,400 tonnes; her machine allows to reach a speed of 13 knots.
Prince Albert is bound with the King of Portugal, Carlos I, and shares with him the passion for Oceanography. He is credited with creating the aquarium “Vasco da Gama” inaugurated in 1898, and numerous oceanographic campaigns on board his yacht AMELIA, built by Ramage and Furguson (Leith, Scotland) for Lord Otho Fitzgerald and acquired in 1897, 148 x 21.1 x 11.1 feet (45 x 6.4 x 3.35 m)..
Princesse Alice II Princesse Alice II
Finally, a second HIRONDELLE is built in 1910-1911 at Forges and yards of the Mediterranean in La Seyne. Equipped with two propellers, 82 metres in length and one displacement of 1,600 tonnes, she can navigateat a speed of 15 knots thanks to the power of its two machines of 2,200 horsepower. The latter boat is more technologically equipped: electric lighting, cold rooms, seawater distiller, roll tables and tables illuminating, use of steam and electricity for on-board equipment, Wireless telegraphy.
The twenty-eight campaigns between 1885 and 1915, organized and led by Prince Albert, nicknamed "The Prince Navigator", take place between May and October and last from seven to fourteen weeks. The The Oceanographic Museum of Monaco was founded in front of the Mediterranean Sea in 1889 by Prince Albert, and inaugurated in 1910..
In the early 1900s, on board Princess Alice, the Prince Albert participates in 4 Arctic explorations and Spitsbergen, and carries out a very precise mapping. The "Prince navigateur" will give the name of the Principality to one of the glaciers of Spitsbergen: the Glacier of Monaco located on the northwest coast. The Land of Albert I is a Norwegian territory located completely northwest of Spitsberg, Svalbard. The Prince Albert also funded the first Norwegian mapping expedition of the Svalbard in 1906.  
During his campaigns, the Prince invited many scientific experts. Several deep-sea fish species have been discovered during the expeditions of Prince Albert but described and classified as pllus late, in particular by the Austrian zoologist Erich Zugmayer.
After observing the symptoms of the ordinary crewmen contact of a kind of jellyfish, called physalis, Prince invites Charles Richet, Professor at the Faculty of Medicine in Paris, and Paul Portier, physiology assistant at the Sorbonne, at the expedition to isolate the venom and study this phenomenon. Following work carried out on board the second Princess-Alice, then on their return to Paris, Richet and Portier published the discovery of anaphylaxis in 1902 and Charles Richet obtained the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine 1913.


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